A Laymen’s Commentary on the Large Catechism: Fourth Commandment


Unless the Lord builds the house,
    those who build it labor in vain.
Unless the Lord watches over the city,
    the watchman stays awake in vain.
It is in vain that you rise up early
    and go late to rest,
eating the bread of anxious toil;
    for he gives to his beloved sleep.

Behold, children are a heritage from the Lord,
    the fruit of the womb a reward.
Like arrows in the hand of a warrior
    are the children of one’s youth.
Blessed is the man
    who fills his quiver with them!
He shall not be put to shame
    when he speaks with his enemies in the gate.

(Psalm 127)

The Fourth Commandment.

Thou shalt honor thy father and thy mother [that it may be well with thee and thou mayest live long upon the earth].

What does this mean?–Answer.

We should fear and love God that we may not despise nor anger our parents and masters, but give them honor, serve, obey, and hold them in love and esteem.

(Small Catechism)


These are the holy Ten Commands
Which our Lord God placed in our hands
Through Moses, His own servant true,
When he to Mount Sinai drew.

Thou shalt give love and honor due
To father, and to mother too,
And help them when their strength decays;
So shalt thou have length of days.

God hath giv’n us all these commands
That thou thy sin, O child of man,
Might know, and also well perceive
How unto God man should live.

Help us, Lord Jesus Christ, for we
A Mediator have in Thee.
With works we’d perish from the path;
They merit but endless wrath.
Kyrieleis! (TLH 287/LSB 581)


The Fourth Commandment.

103] Thus far we have learned the first three commandments, which relate to God. First, that with our whole heart we trust in Him, and fear and love Him throughout all our life. Secondly, that we do not misuse His holy name in the support of falsehood or any bad work, but employ it to the praise of God and the profit and salvation of our neighbor and ourselves. Thirdly, that on holidays and when at rest we diligently treat and urge God’s Word, so that all our actions and our entire life be ordered according to it. Now follow the other seven, which relate to our neighbor, among which the first and greatest is:

104] Thou shalt honor thy father and thy mother.

105] To this estate of fatherhood and motherhood God has given the special distinction above all estates that are beneath it that He not simply commands us to love our parents, but to honor them. For with respect to brothers, sisters, and our neighbors in general He commands nothing higher than that we love them, so that He separates and distinguishes father and mother above all other persons upon earth, and places them at His side. 106] For it is a far higher thing to honor than to love one, inasmuch as it comprehends not only love, but also modesty, humility, and deference as to a majesty there hidden, 107] and requires not only that they be addressed kindly and with reverence, but, most of all, that both in heart and with the body we so act as to show that we esteem them very highly, and that, next to God, we regard them as the very highest. For one whom we are to honor from the heart we must truly regard as high and great.

108] We must, therefore, impress it upon the young that they should regard their parents as in God’s stead, and remember that however lowly, poor, frail, and queer they may be, nevertheless they are father and mother given them by God. They are not to be deprived of their honor because of their conduct or their failings. Therefore we are not to regard their persons, how they may be, but the will of God who has thus created and ordained. In other respects we are, indeed, all alike in the eyes of God; but among us there must necessarily be such inequality and ordered difference, and therefore God commands it to be observed, that you obey me as your father, and that I have the supremacy.

109] Learn, therefore, first, what is the honor towards parents required by this commandment, to wit, that they be held in distinction and esteem above all things, as the most precious treasure on earth. 110] Furthermore, that also in our words we observe modesty toward them, do not accost them roughly, haughtily, and defiantly, but yield to them and be silent, even though they go too far. 111] Thirdly, that we show them such honor also by works, that is, with our body and possessions, that we serve them, help them, and provide for them when they are old, sick, infirm, or poor, and all that not only gladly, but with humility and reverence, as doing it before God. For he who knows how to regard them in his heart will not allow them to suffer want or hunger, but will place them above him and at his side, and will share with them whatever he has and possesses.

The Lord has given us the command to love all people (1 John 3:11-24).  After all, this is part of the summary of the Law (Matthew 22:34-40).  In this summary, the First Table of the Law (Commandments 1-3) is: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind” (Matthew 22:37). Likewise, the Second Table of the Law (Commandments 4-10) is: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” (Matthew 22:39).

However, the Lord takes it a step further with parents. We are not only to love our parents but also we are to honor them.  Honor is greater than Love, as Luther points out.  We are to honor parents second only to God Himself.

We are to honor and love our parents even in spite of their failings and inadequacies.  For the Lord puts no provisions or exceptions on this commandment.  Your father and your mother are and remain your parents even though they may fail at their vocations and be miserable sinners (Matthew 5:43-48).

God commands that we obey our fathers as He is our Father.  Fathers likewise are expected to be like our heavenly Father. After all, He is the origin of what it truly means to be a father.  Fathers have a high calling from God to be in His stead in the family.

Thus to truly honor our parents, as we are commanded and deserve by their vocation, we should hold them in high esteem and as great treasures from God.  We must also speak toward them kindly, gently, and deal with them in patience (Proverbs 15:1-7).  We must also provide for them and see to their welfare, especially when they are old.  We should not neglect them or abandon them. Rather we are to treat them as we would our Father in Heaven (Ephesians 6:5-9).

112] Secondly, notice how great, good, and holy a work is here assigned children, which is, alas! utterly neglected and disregarded, and no one perceives that God has commanded it, or that it is a holy, divine Word and doctrine. For if it had been regarded as such, every one could have inferred that they must be holy men who live according to these words. Thus there would have been no need of inventing monasticism nor spiritual orders, but every child would have abided by this commandment, and could have directed his conscience to God and said: “If I am to do good and holy works, I know of none better than to render all honor and obedience to my parents, because God has Himself commanded it. 113] For what God commands must be much and far nobler than everything that we may devise ourselves; and since there is no higher or better teacher to be found than God, there can be no better doctrine, indeed, than He gives forth. Now, He teaches fully what we should do if we wish to perform truly good works; and by commanding them, He shows that they please Him. If, then, it is God who commands this, and who knows not how to appoint anything better, I will never improve upon it.”

114] Behold, in this manner we would have had a godly child properly taught, reared in true blessedness, and kept at home in obedience to his parents and in their service, so that men should have had blessing and joy from the spectacle. However, God’s commandment was not permitted to be thus [with such care and diligence] commended, but had to be neglected and trampled under foot, so that a child could not lay it to heart, and meanwhile gaped [like a panting wolf] at the devices which we set up, without once [consulting or] giving reverence to God.

115] Let us, therefore, learn at last, for God’s sake, that, placing all other things out of sight, our youths look first to this commandment, if they wish to serve God with truly good works, that they do what is pleasing to their fathers and mothers, or to those to whom they may be subject in their stead. For every child that knows and does this has, in the first place, this great consolation in his heart, that he can joyfully say and boast (in spite of and against all who are occupied with works of their own choice): “Behold, this work is well pleasing to my God in heaven, that I know for certain.” 116] Let them all come together with their many great, distressing, and difficult works and make their boast; we will see whether they can show one that is greater and nobler than obedience to father and mother, to whom God has appointed and commanded obedience next to His own majesty; so that if God’s Word and will are in force and being accomplished, nothing shall be esteemed higher than the will and word of parents; yet so that it, too, is subordinated to obedience toward God and is not opposed to the preceding commandments.

117] Therefore you should be heartily glad and thank God that He has chosen you and made you worthy to do a work so precious and pleasing to Him. Only see that, although it be regarded as the most humble and despised, you esteem it great and precious, not on account of our worthiness, but because it is comprehended in, and controlled by, the jewel and sanctuary, namely, the Word and commandment of God. 118] Oh, what a high price would all Carthusians, monks, and nuns pay, if in all their religious doings they could bring into God’s presence a single work done by virtue of His commandment, and be able before His face to say with joyful heart: “Now I know that this work is well pleasing to Thee.” Where will these poor wretched persons hide when in the sight of God and all the world they shall blush with shame before a young child who has lived according to this commandment, and shall have to confess that with their whole life they are not worthy to give it a drink of water? 119] And it serves them right for their devilish perversion in treading God’s commandment under foot that they must vainly torment themselves with works of their own device, and, in addition, have scorn and loss for their reward.

120] Should not the heart, then, leap and melt for joy when going to work and doing what is commanded, saying: Lo, this is better than all holiness of the Carthusians, even though they kill themselves fasting and praying upon their knees without ceasing? For here you have a sure text and a divine testimony that He has enjoined this; but concerning the other He did not command a word. But this is the plight and miserable blindness of the world that no one believes these things; to such an extent the devil has deceived us with false holiness and the glamour of our own works.

Serving our parents is a good work.  In fact, there are so many good works in this service that it outnumbers any other good work you could perform.  There is no need to go looking for extraordinary good works.  Your parents need your simple good works right here and now (Mark 7:1-13).

Luther here takes a shot at the Carthusians, who were also called the Order of Saint Bruno. The Carthusians are a hermetic order of monks who are cloistered for most of the day only leaving their cell to go to church services.  They were thought by people of Luther’s time to be the pinnacle of holiness.  However, those who simply do the works of the Law are holier than these cloistered monks.

Similarly, in our own day, we have neo-monasticism.  This is the idea that you need to go out and do special works of service to your neighbor in order to please God, while neglecting the simple works right in front of you.  This takes its most dramatic form in “mission trips” where people venture halfway across the world to build a hut for some natives and maybe share the Gospel with them, while taking selfies to show how pious they are. All the while they desert their family neglecting the good works the Lord has given in their vocations. We need not go on these pilgrimages to do good works.  The highest and best good work is in front of us.  To serve and honor our parents.

Children do a far better job of keeping this commandment than we adults do (Matthew 18:1-6).  As adults, we tend to overthink this commandment, or worse, think of ways to get out of this commandment.  Rather the Lord would have us the good works He has put in front of us (Mark 9:38-41). Good works exist in all shapes and sizes. A simple child realizes this as they obey their parents and do simple acts of love to them.  No lofty scheme for extravagant work enters their head, they just live their vocation.  It truly brings home the fact that in Christ all the works of a Christian done in faith are good works (2 Corinthians 4:1-6).

121] Therefore I would be very glad (I say it again) if men would open their eyes and ears, and take this to heart, lest some time we may again be led astray from the pure Word of God to the lying vanities of the devil. Then, too, all would be well; for parents would have more joy, love, friendship, and concord in their houses; thus the children could captivate their parents’ hearts. 122] On the other hand, when they are obstinate, and will not do what they ought until a rod is laid upon their back, they anger both God and their parents, whereby they deprive themselves of this treasure and joy of conscience, and lay up for themselves only misfortune. 123] Therefore, as every one complains, the course of the world now is such that both young and old are altogether dissolute and beyond control, have no reverence nor sense of honor, do nothing except as they are driven to it by blows, and perpetrate what wrong and detraction they can behind each other’s back; therefore God also punishes them, that they sink into all kinds of filth and misery. 124] As a rule, the parents, too, are themselves stupid and ignorant; one fool trains [teaches] another, and as they have lived, so live their children after them.

125] This, now, I say should be the first and most important consideration to urge us to the observance of this commandment; on which account, even if we had no father and mother, we ought to wish that God would set up wood and stone before us, whom we might call father and mother. How much more, since He has given us living parents, should we rejoice to show them honor and obedience, because we know it is so highly pleasing to the Divine Majesty and to all angels, and vexes all devils, and is, besides, 126] the highest work which we can do, after the sublime divine worship comprehended in the previous commandments; so that giving of alms and every other good work toward our neighbor are not equal to this. For God has assigned this estate the highest place, yea, has set it up in His own stead, upon earth. This will and pleasure of God ought to be a sufficient reason and incentive to us to do what we can with good will and pleasure.

We must pay attention to this oft-neglected commandment (Psalm 12, 31, Proverbs 22:15, 26:1-12). The disarray caused by people not following this commandment is evident.  For what else can be blamed for the decline of our society than the despising of our parents.  Our parents have not been instructed well, they, in turn, have not instructed their children well, and our children have not learned what little good we have taught.  We have neglected this commandment and now we are a nation of fools.  Beyond that, we can see the brokenness of single-parent households, orphans, widows, and the like.

Serving and loving our parents is the highest service we can render to our neighbors.  Parents are in the highest station God gives on Earth.  If we did not have them but knew of their great benefits we would plead for God to give them to us.  However, we need not plead to God for parents, we have them, thus we should honor them and regard them highly.

127] Besides this, it is our duty before the world to be grateful for benefits and every good which we have of our parents. 128] But here again the devil rules in the world, so that the children forget their parents, as we all forget God, and no one considers how God nourishes, protects, and defends us, and bestows so much good on body and soul; especially when an evil hour comes, we are angry and grumble with impatience, and all the good which we have received throughout our life is wiped out [from our memory]. Just so we do also with our parents, and there is no child that understands and considers this [what the parents have endured while nourishing and fostering him], except the Holy Ghost grant him this grace.

129] God knows very well this perverseness of the world; therefore He admonishes and urges by commandments that every one consider what his parents have done for him, and he will find that he has from them body and life, moreover, that he has been fed and reared when otherwise he would have perished a hundred times in his own filth. 130] Therefore it is a true and good saying of old and wise men: Deo, parentibus et magistris non potest satis gratiae rependi, that is, To God, to parents, and to teachers we can never render sufficient gratitude and compensation. He that regards and considers this will indeed without compulsion do all honor to his parents, and bear them up on his hands as those through whom God has done him all good.

Parents give us many benefits and all good as God our Father does (Psalm 23, 78, 91).  They give us a life of their own substance. They defend and care for us when we are vulnerable and young. They instruct us in the righteous ways of the Lord. They pray for us and give wise counsel.  God uses our parents to bestow on us His favor.

With all of this high station, parents have a responsibility to serve their children as God serves us.  They also do not need to look for extraordinary good works to do, as they have their children to care for.  More than enough good works exist in this.  As such parents should not neglect or abuse their children.  Rather they should always seek the good of the children and family in everything they do; even if they must sacrifice worldly comfort, status, or other good works the world has concocted.  No matter the status or the wealth one attains, the apparent good one can do for the world, it is as nothing if one does not care for one’s own children.  Thus fathers must not neglect instructing and disciplining their children because they are too busy or lazy.  Mothers must not seek the wiles of feminism and neglect their God-given responsibilities and gifts to care for their children and raise them in the way they should go.  Much havoc has been wrought in our modern culture from absent or negligent parents, even in stable two-parent families.

We are so wrapped up in our so-called lives outside of our families, that we neglect the very good works the Lord has given us.  More can be done to save the world by caring for and raising your family than can ever be done by the works done in the world.  A higher calling exists not outside of your family but to it, for it is God Himself that has placed you in it.  There is no higher calling to be had, and one need not wonder if you are wasting your talents if one uses them in service to your family.  They are, after all, your closest neighbor.  Your children are the poor, the needy, the hungry, the ill-clad, the uneducated, who need your protection and guidance.

131] Over and above all this, another great reason that should incite us the more [to obedience to this commandment] is that God attaches to this commandment a temporal promise and says: That thou mayest live long upon the land which the Lord, thy God, giveth thee.

132] Here you can see yourself how much God is in earnest in respect to this commandment, inasmuch as He not only declares that it is well pleasing to Him, and that He has joy and delight therein; but also that it shall be for our prosperity and promote our highest good; so that we may have a pleasant and agreeable life, furnished with every good thing. 133] Therefore also St. Paul greatly emphasizes the same and rejoices in it when he says, Eph. 6:2-3: This is the first commandment with promise: That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth. For although the rest also have their promises contained in them, yet in none is it so plainly and explicitly stated.

134] Here, then, you have the fruit and the reward, that whoever observes this commandment shall have happy days, fortune, and prosperity; and on the other hand, the punishment, that whoever is disobedient shall the sooner perish, and never enjoy life. For to have long life in the sense of the Scriptures is not only to become old, but to have everything which belongs to long life, such as health, wife, and children, livelihood, peace, good government, etc., without which this life can neither be enjoyed in cheerfulness nor long endure. 135] If, therefore, you will not obey father and mother and submit to their discipline, then obey the hangman; if you will not obey him, then submit to the skeleton-man, i.e., death [death the all-subduer, the teacher of wicked children]. 136] For on this God insists peremptorily: Either if you obey Him, rendering love and service, He will reward you abundantly with all good, or if you offend Him, He will send upon you both death and the hangman.

137] Whence come so many knaves that must daily be hanged, beheaded, broken upon the wheel, but from disobedience [to parents], because they will not submit to discipline in kindness, so that, by the punishment of God, they bring it about that we behold their misfortune and grief? For it seldom happens that such perverse people die a natural or timely death.

But the godly and obedient have this blessing, that they live long in pleasant quietness, and see their children’s children (as said above) to the third and fourth generation.

138] Thus experience also teaches, that where there are honorable, old families who fare well and have many children, they owe their origin to the fact, to be sure, that some of them were brought up well and were regardful of their parents. On the other hand, it is written of the wicked, Ps. 109:13: Let his posterity be cut off; and in the generation following let their name be blotted out. 139] Therefore heed well how great a thing in God’s sight obedience is, since He so highly esteems it, is so highly pleased with it, and rewards it so richly, and besides enforces punishment so rigorously on those who act contrariwise.

140] All this I say that it may be well impressed upon the young. For no one believes how necessary this commandment is, although it has not been esteemed and taught hitherto under the papacy. These are simple and easy words, and everybody thinks he knew them afore; therefore men pass them lightly by, are gaping after other matters, and do not see and believe that God is so greatly offended if they be disregarded, nor that one does a work so well pleasing and precious if he follows them.

There is a great promise attached to this commandment (Psalm 128).  Peace and long life.  Because of this promise, it is evident that God is very serious about this commandment, as He is about all of them (Ephesians 6:1-4).  Those who refuse to obey their parents will soon find themselves under the Kingdom of the Left and the sword of the government (Psalm 109).

141] In this commandment belongs a further statement regarding all kinds of obedience to persons in authority who have to command and to govern. For all authority flows and is propagated from the authority of parents. For where a father is unable alone to educate his [rebellious and irritable] child, he employs a schoolmaster to instruct him; if he be too weak, he enlists the aid of his friends and neighbors; if he departs this life, he delegates and confers his authority and government upon others who are appointed for the purpose. 142] Likewise, he must have domestics, man-servants and maid-servants, under himself for the management of the household, so that all whom we call masters are in the place of parents and must derive their power and authority to govern from them. Hence also they are all called fathers in the Scriptures, as those who in their government perform the functions of a father, and should have a paternal heart toward their subordinates. As also from antiquity the Romans and other nations called the masters and mistresses of the household patres- et matres- familiae, that is, housefathers and housemothers. So also they called their national rulers and overlords patres patriae, that is, fathers of the entire country, for a great shame to us who would be Christians that we do not likewise call them so, or, at least, do not esteem and honor them as such.

143] Now, what a child owes to father and mother, the same owe all who are embraced in the household. Therefore man-servants and maid-servants should be careful not only to be obedient to their masters and mistresses, but also to honor them as their own fathers and mothers, and to do everything which they know is expected of them, not from compulsion and with reluctance, but with pleasure and joy for the cause just mentioned, namely, that it is God’s command and is pleasing to Him above all other works. 144] Therefore they ought rather to pay wages in addition and be glad that they may obtain masters and mistresses to have such joyful consciences and to know how they may do truly golden works; a matter which has hitherto been neglected and despised, when, instead, everybody ran, in the devil’s name, into convents or to pilgrimages and indulgences, with loss [of time and money] and with an evil conscience.

145] If this truth, then, could be impressed upon the poor people, a servant-girl would leap and praise and thank God; and with her tidy work for which she receives support and wages she would acquire such a treasure as all that are esteemed the greatest saints have not obtained. Is it not an excellent boast to know and say that, if you perform your daily domestic task, this is better than all the sanctity and ascetic life of monks? 146] And you have the promise, in addition, that you shall prosper in all good and fare well. How can you lead a more blessed or holier life as far as your works are concerned? 147] For in the sight of God faith is what really renders a person holy, and alone serves Him, but the works are for the service of man. 148] There you have everything good, protection and defense in the Lord, a joyful conscience and a gracious God besides, who will reward you a hundredfold, so that you are even a nobleman if you be only pious and obedient. But if not, you have, in the first place, nothing but the wrath and displeasure of God, no peace of heart, and afterwards all manner of plagues and misfortunes.

149] Whoever will not be influenced by this and inclined to godliness we hand over to the hangman and to the skeleton-man. Therefore let every one who allows himself to be advised remember that God is not making sport, and know that it is God who speaks with you and demands obedience. If you obey Him, you are His dear child; but if you despise to do it, then take shame, misery, and grief for your reward.

All other earthly authority extends from the parents.  This includes employers and government. Thus those in the employ of the household also owe respect and honor to the parents. More good works and godly service can be found here than in any other seemingly extreme work.

Here we can talk about vocation. Your vocation is your station in life. It may be to be a father, mother, son, daughter, sister, brother.  It may be employer or employee.  It may be governor or citizen.  Regardless of your vocation serving in your vocation is God-pleasing.  Good works abound in your vocation (Matthew 19:16-30).

God is brutally serious about this.  If you do not follow this commandment you will meet with wrath and judgment.  However for those who do keep it the Lord calls you His own child (John 14:15-31).

150] The same also is to be said of obedience to civil government, which (as we have said) is all embraced in the estate of fatherhood and extends farthest of all relations. For here the father is not one of a single family, but of as many people as he has tenants, citizens, or subjects. For through them, as through our parents, God gives to us food, house and home, protection and security. Therefore, since they bear such name and title with all honor as their highest dignity, it is our duty to honor them and to esteem them great as the dearest treasure and the most precious jewel upon earth.

151] He, now, who is obedient here, is willing and ready to serve, and cheerfully does all that pertains to honor, knows that he is pleasing God and that he will receive joy and happiness for his reward. If he will not do it in love, but despises and resists [authority] or rebels, let him also know, on the other hand, that he shall have no favor nor blessing, and where he thinks to gain a florin thereby, he will elsewhere lose ten times as much, or become a victim to the hangman, perish by war, pestilence, and famine, or experience no good in his children, and be obliged to suffer injury, injustice, and violence at the hands of his servants, neighbors, or strangers and tyrants; so that what we seek and deserve is paid back and comes home to us.

152] If we would ever suffer ourselves to be persuaded that such works are pleasing to God and have so rich a reward, we would be established in altogether abundant possessions and have what our heart desires. But because the word and command of God are so lightly esteemed, as though some babbler had spoken it, let us see whether you are the man to oppose Him. How difficult, do you think, it will be for Him to recompense you! Therefore you would certainly live much better with the divine favor, peace, and happiness than with His displeasure and misfortune. 154] Why, think you, is the world now so full of unfaithfulness, disgrace, calamity, and murder, but because every one desires to be his own master and free from the emperor, to care nothing for any one, and do what pleases him? Therefore God punishes one knave by another, so that, when you defraud and despise your master, another comes and deals in like manner with you, yea, in your household you must suffer ten times more from wife, children, or servants.

155] Indeed, we feel our misfortune, we murmur and complain of unfaithfulness, violence, and injustice, but will not see that we ourselves are knaves who have fully deserved this punishment, and yet are not thereby reformed. We will have no favor and happiness, therefore it is but fair that we have nothing but misfortune without mercy. 156] There must still be somewhere upon earth some godly people because God continues to grant us so much good! On our own account we should not have a farthing in the house nor a straw in the field. 157] All this I have been obliged to urge with so many words, in hope that some one may take it to heart, that we may be relieved of the blindness and misery in which we are steeped so deeply, and may truly understand the Word and will of God, and earnestly accept it. For thence we would learn how we could have joy, happiness, and salvation enough, both temporal and eternal.

The estate of Government is an extension of fatherhood as well.  Therefore we should be good citizens and good rulers.  Resisting authority leads to the sword and the Kingdom of the Left.

Here is a good opportunity to discuss the Two Kingdoms and the Three Estates.  The Two Kingdoms are the Kingdom of the Right which is the Kingdom of the Church.  In this Kingdom the Lord rules by His mercy.  The Kingdom of the Left is the Kingdom of the State.  In this Kingdom the Lord rules by the law and the sword.  Thus mercy, forgiveness, and life are found in the church.  The state is to keep law, order, and punish evil.

We also have the Three Estates.  The first is the family, from which all earthly authority flows. The second is the church, which is where the people of God worship Him.  The third estate is the government, which is to see to the order of society.  In fact, the estate of the church and the state flow from the estate of the family.  After all, the estate of the church and the government are really ways of recognizing that we are all one larger human family even if we are not directly related by blood.  The church is our spiritual family, where we are one in Christ.  The state is our broader community who are our neighbors, and thus is a family of families.

Since the government has the power of the sword we should not mock it or this commandment.  Else we will end up with our just desserts (Galatians 6:1-10).  Rather we should hold the government with high honor and esteem, and strive to serve it to the best of our abilities if we are called to do so.

If we could actually do these works we would have our reward (Psalm 37).  But we cannot.  We fail, we sin grievously against this commandment.  All the misfortune we experience in this life we deserve because we do not follow God’s Law.  However since God has not destroyed the world yet there must still be some godly people, namely the Church.  To be sure, the only reason why the world has not descended further into corruption is the Church.  The very continued existence of this fallen creation is so that the Church can continue to do her work of bringing the Gospel to all nations so that men will hear the Word of God and repent before it is too late.

158] Thus we have two kinds of fathers presented in this commandment, fathers in blood and fathers in office, or those to whom belongs the care of the family, and those to whom belongs the care of the country. Besides these there are yet spiritual fathers; not like those in the Papacy, who have indeed had themselves called thus, but have performed no function of the paternal office. For those only are called spiritual fathers who govern and guide us by the Word of God; 159] as St. Paul boasts his fatherhood 1 Cor. 4:15, where he says: In Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the Gospel. Now, 160] since they are fathers they are entitled to their honor, even above all others. But here it is bestowed least; for the way which the world knows for honoring them is to drive them out of the country and to grudge them a piece of bread, and, in short, they must be (as says St. Paul, 1 Cor. 4:13) as the filth of the world and everybody’s refuse and footrag.

161] Yet there is need that this also be urged upon the populace, that those who would be Christians are under obligation in the sight Of God to esteem them worthy of double honor who minister to their souls, that they deal well with them and provide for them. For that, God is willing to add to you sufficient blessing and will not let you come to want. 162] But in this matter every one refuses and resists, and all are afraid that they will perish from bodily want, and cannot now support one respectable preacher, where formerly they filled ten fat paunches. 163] In this we also deserve that God deprive us of His Word and blessing, and again allow preachers of lies to arise to lead us to the devil, and, in addition, to drain our sweat and blood.

164] But those who keep in sight God’s will and commandment have the promise that everything which they bestow upon temporal and spiritual fathers, and whatever they do to honor them, shall be richly recompensed to them, so that they shall have, not bread, clothing, and money for a year or two, but long life, support, and peace, and shall be eternally rich and blessed. 165] Therefore only do what is your duty, and let God take care how He is to support you and provide for you sufficiently. Since He has promised it, and has never yet lied, He will not be found lying to you.

166] This ought indeed to encourage us, and give us hearts that would melt in pleasure and love toward those to whom we owe honor, so that we would raise our hands and joyfully thank God who has given us such promises, for which we ought to run to the ends of the world [to the remotest parts of India]. For although the whole world should combine, it could not add an hour to our life or give us a single grain from the earth. But God wishes to give you all exceeding abundantly according to your heart’s desire. He who despises and casts this to the winds is not worthy ever to hear a word of God. This has now been stated more than enough for all who belong under this commandment.

Beyond estates of parents and government, we also have spiritual fathers, which is the estate of the church (Matthew 23).  We do not follow the papacy or any church hierarchy, but God.  Rather than a temporal spiritual king on earth, for Christ alone is the King of the Church, God instead gives us pastors as our spiritual fathers (1 Corinthians 4).  They bestow on us the gifts of God, Word and Sacrament.

Pastors are frequently mistreated for speaking the truth even though they should be honored (1 Timothy 5).  As parishioners, we should support our pastor (1 Timothy 2).  We should honor him, provide for him, and graciously receive the gifts he brings to us from Christ.  However since we do not do this, we fully deserve to have God withdraw His Word and blessing (Matthew 6:25-34).

167] In addition, it would be well to preach to the parents also, and such as bear their office, as to how they should deport themselves toward those who are committed to them for their government. For although this is not expressed in the Ten Commandments, it is nevertheless abundantly enjoined in many places in the Scripture. And God desires to have it embraced in this commandment when He speaks of father and mother. 168] For He does not wish to have in this office and government knaves and tyrants; nor does He assign to them this honor, that is, power and authority to govern, that they should have themselves worshiped; but they should consider that they are under obligations of obedience to God; and that, first of all, they should earnestly and faithfully discharge their office, not only to support and provide for the bodily necessities of their children, servants, subjects, etc., but, most of all, to train them to the honor and praise of God. 169] Therefore do not think that this is left to your pleasure and arbitrary will, but that it is a strict command and injunction of God, to whom also you must give account for it.

170] But here again the sad plight arises that no one perceives or heeds this, and all live on as though God gave us children for our pleasure or amusement, and servants that we should employ them like a cow or ass, only for work, or as though we were only to gratify our wantonness with our subjects, ignoring them, as though it were no concern of ours what they learn or how they live; 171] and no one is willing to see that this is the command of the Supreme Majesty, who will most strictly call us to account and punish us for it; nor that there is so great need to be so seriously concerned about the young. 172] For if we wish to have excellent and apt persons both for civil and ecclesiastical government, we must spare no diligence, time, or cost in teaching and educating our children, that they may serve God and the world, 173] and we must not think only how we may amass money and possessions for them. For God can indeed without us support and make them rich, as He daily does. But for this purpose He has given us children, and issued this command that we should train and govern them according to His will, else He would have no need of father and mother. Let every one know, therefore, that it is his duty, on peril of losing the divine favor, to bring up his children above all things in the fear and knowledge of God, and if they are talented, have them learn and study something, 174] that they may be employed for whatever need there is [to have them instructed and trained in a liberal education, that men may be able to have their aid in government and in whatever is necessary].

175] If that were done, God would also richly bless us and give us grace to train men by whom land and people might be improved, and likewise well-educated citizens, chaste and domestic wives, who afterwards would rear godly children and servants. 176] Here consider now what deadly injury you are doing if you be negligent and fail on your part to bring up your child to usefulness and piety, and how you bring upon yourself all sin and wrath, thus earning hell by your own children, even though you be otherwise pious and holy. 177] And because this is disregarded, God so fearfully punishes the world that there is no discipline, government, or peace, of which we all complain, but do not see that it is our fault; for as we train them, we have spoiled and disobedient children and subjects. Let this be sufficient exhortation; for to draw this out at length belongs to another time.

Parents and those in authority should not let all this praise go to their heads.  They have a most serious job to do.  They must care for their children with wisdom, humility, and love.  Parents are also obligated to obey God (Proverbs 22:6, 1 Peter 4:1-11).  The failings of the parents in their duties are reflected in their children and the state.  If we want to improve the state, we must first teach our children.

God has given us children as blessings.  Thus we should rejoice in them and desire that the Lord would bless us with more of them.  We should not be greedy, lazy, or selfish but we should give our children both temporal and spiritual food.  We should train them in mind, body, and soul (Proverbs 1:1-7).  If we were to follow this we would already be in paradise.  God rightly punishes all of us for failing to keep this commandment.

Happy the man who feareth God,
Whose feet His holy ways have trod;
Thine own good hand shall nourish thee,
And well and happy shalt thou be.

Thy wife shall, like a fruitful vine,
Fill all thy house with clusters fine;
Thy children all be fresh and sound,
Like olive-plants thy table round.

Lo! to the man these blessings cleave
Who in God’s holy fear doth live;
From him the ancient curse hath fled
By Adam’s race inherited.

Out of Mount Zion God shall send,
And crown with joy thy latter end;
That thou Jerusalem mayst see,
In favor and prosperity.

He shall be with thee in thy ways,
And give thee health and length of days;
Yea, thou shalt children’s children see,
And peace on Israel shall be.

(“Happy the Man Who Feareth God”, Martin Luther)

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