Out of Love and Zeal for the Truth

“Out of love and zeal for truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following theses will be publicly discussed at Wittenberg under the chairmanship of the reverend father Martin Lutther [sic], Master of Arts and Sacred Theology … Continue reading

The Reformation of Penance

When Martin Luther published his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517, he sought to redefine the foundation of late medieval piety: the sacrament of penance.  While he argued that Christ “willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance,” Luther … Continue reading

The Origin of Indulgences, Penance and the Crusades

Since we recently observed the 495th anniversary of Martin Luther’s publication of the Ninety-Five Theses, it may be instructive to understand the history of indulgences and the development of their use in the late medieval church. A close reading of … Continue reading