The Reformation of Penance

When Martin Luther published his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517, he sought to redefine the foundation of late medieval piety: the sacrament of penance.  While he argued that Christ “willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance,” Luther … Continue reading

The Origin of Indulgences, Penance and the Crusades

Since we recently observed the 495th anniversary of Martin Luther’s publication of the Ninety-Five Theses, it may be instructive to understand the history of indulgences and the development of their use in the late medieval church. A close reading of … Continue reading